Water Industry

The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors of the economy. The water industry does not include manufacturers and suppliers of bottled water, which is part of the beverage production and belongs to the food sector.


Overview

The water industry includes water engineering, operations, water and wastewater plant construction, equipment supply and specialist water treatment chemicals, among others.

The water industry is at the service of other industries, e.g. of the food sector which produces beverages such as bottled water.

Organizational structure

There are a variety of organizational structures for the water industry, with countries usually having one dominant traditional structure, which usually changes only gradually over time.

Ownership of water infrastructure and operations

Operations

  • local government operating the system through a municipal department, municipal company, or inter-municipal company
  • local government outsources operations to private experts sector,(private water operators)
  • national government operations
  • private water operators owns the system
    • BOTs - private sector building parts of a water system (such as a wastewater treatment plant) and operating it for an agreed period before transferring to public sector ownership and operation.
  • cooperation and NGO operators

Functions

  • Integrated water system (water supply, sewerage (sanitation) system, and wastewater treatment)
  • Separation by function (e.g. Dutch system where sewerage run by city, water supply by municipal or provincial companies, and water treatment by water boards), though some Water Supply Companies have merged beyond municipal or provincial borders.
  • Other separation (e.g. Munich, separated into three companies for bulk water supply, water and wastewater network operations, and retail)

Standards

Water quality standards and environmental standards relating to wastewater are usually set by national bodies.

See also

References

  1. ^ United States. Safe Drinking Water Act. Pub.L. 93-523; 88 Stat. 1660; 42 U.S.C. § 300f et seq. Approved 1974-12-16.
  2. ^ United States. Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. Pub.L. 92-500 Approved 1972-10-18.
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-04-08. Retrieved .  Watertime - the international context. Section 2

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


Water_industry
 

Manage research, learning and skills at IT1me. Create an account using LinkedIn to manage and organize your IT knowledge. IT1me works like a shopping cart for information -- helping you to save, discuss and share.


  Contact Us  |  About IT1me.com |  IT Training & References |  IT Careers |  IT Hardware |  IT Software |  IT Books