to bring rich computational resources to mobile users, network operators, as well as cloud computing providers. The ultimate goal of MCC is to enable execution of rich mobile applications on a plethora of mobile devices, with a rich user experience. MCC provides business opportunities for mobile network operators as well as cloud providers. More comprehensively, MCC can be defined as "a rich mobile computing technology that leverages unified elastic resources of varied clouds and network technologies toward unrestricted functionality, storage, and mobility to serve a multitude of mobile devices anywhere, anytime through the channel of Ethernet or Internet regardless of heterogeneous environments and platforms based on the pay-as-you-use principle."
Mobile cloud architecture
MCC uses computational augmentation approaches (computations are executed remotely instead of on the device) by which resource-constraint mobile devices can utilize computational resources of varied cloud-based resources. In MCC, there are four types of cloud-based resources, namely distant immobile clouds, proximate immobile computing entities, proximate mobile computing entities, and hybrid (combination of the other three model). Giant clouds such as Amazon EC2 are in the distant immobile groups whereas cloudlet or surrogates are member of proximate immobile computing entities. Smartphones, tablets, handheld devices, and wearable computing devices are part of the third group of cloud-based resources which is proximate mobile computing entities.
Vodafone,Orange and Verizon have started to offer cloud computing services for companies.
MobiByte is a mobile cloud application development framework that enables mobile devices to offload computations to the cloud to achieve performance enhancement, energy efficiency, and application execution support.
In the MCC landscape, an amalgam of mobile computing, cloud computing, and communication networks (to augment smartphones) creates several complex challenges such as Mobile Computation Offloading, Seamless Connectivity, Long WAN Latency, Mobility Management, Context-Processing, Energy Constraint, Vendor/data Lock-in, Security and Privacy, Elasticity that hinder MCC success and adoption.
Open research issues
Although significant research and development in MCC is available in the literature, efforts in the following domains is still lacking:
- Architectural issues: A reference architecture for heterogeneous MCC environment is a crucial requirement for unleashing the power of mobile computing towards unrestricted ubiquitous computing.
- Energy-efficient transmission: MCC requires frequent transmissions between cloud platform and mobile devices, due to the stochastic nature of wireless networks, the transmission protocol should be carefully designed.
- Context-awareness issues: Context-aware and socially-aware computing are inseparable traits of contemporary handheld computers. To achieve the vision of mobile computing among heterogeneous converged networks and computing devices, designing resource-efficient environment-aware applications is an essential need.
- Live VM migration issues: Executing resource-intensive mobile application via Virtual Machine (VM) migration-based application offloading involves encapsulation of application in VM instance and migrating it to the cloud, which is a challenging task due to additional overhead of deploying and managing VM on mobile devices.
- Mobile communication congestion issues: Mobile data traffic is tremendously hiking by ever increasing mobile user demands for exploiting cloud resources which impact on mobile network operators and demand future efforts to enable smooth communication between mobile and cloud endpoints.
- Trust, security, and privacy issues: Trust is an essential factor for the success of the burgeoning MCC paradigm. It is because the data along with code/component/application/complete VM is offloaded to the cloud for execution. Moreover, just like software and mobile application piracy, the MCC application development models are also affected by the piracy issue. Pirax is known to be the first specialized framework for controlling application piracy in MCC environment.
MCC research groups
Several academic and industrial research groups in MCC have been emerging since last few years. Some of the MCC research groups in academia with large number of researchers and publications include:
- MobCC lab, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University Malaya. The lab was established in 2010 under the High Impact Research Grant, Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. It has 17 researchers and has track of 22 published articles in international conference and peer reviewed CS journals.
- ICCLAB, Zürich University of Applied Sciences has a segment working on MCC. The InIT Cloud Computing Lab is a research lab within the Institute of Applied Information Technology (InIT) of Zürich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW). It covers topic areas across the entire cloud computing technology stack.
- Mobile & Cloud Lab, Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu. Mobile & Cloud Lab conducts research and teaching in the mobile computing and cloud computing domains. The research topics of the group include cloud computing, mobile application development, mobile cloud, mobile web services and migrating scientific computing and enterprise applications to the cloud.
- SmartLab, Data Management Systems Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus. SmartLab is a first-of-a-kind open cloud of smartphones that enables a new line of systems-oriented mobile computing research.
- ^ Khan, A. u R.; Othman, M.; Madani, S. A.; Khan, S. U. (2014-01-01). "A Survey of Mobile Cloud Computing Application Models". IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials. 16 (1): 393-413. doi:10.1109/SURV.2013.062613.00160. ISSN 1553-877X.
- ^ a b c Abolfazli, Saeid; Sanaei, Zohreh; Ahmed, Ejaz; Gani, Abdullah; Buyya, Rajkumar (1 July 2013). "Cloud-Based Augmentation for Mobile Devices: Motivation, Taxonomies, and Open Challenges". IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 99 (pp): 1-32. doi:10.1109/SURV.2013.070813.00285.
- ^ a b Fangming Liu, Peng Shu, Hai Jin, Linjie Ding, Jie Yu, Di Niu, Bo Li, "Gearing Resource-Poor Mobile Devices with Powerful Clouds: Architecture, Challenges and Applications";, IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, Special Issue on Mobile Cloud Computing, vol. 20, no. 3, pp.14-22, June, 2013.
- ^ Abolfazli, Saeid; Sanaei, Zohreh; Gani, Abdullah; Xia, Feng; Yang, Laurence T. (1 September 2013). "Rich Mobile Applications: Genesis, taxonomy, and open issues". Journal of Network and Computer Applications. doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2013.09.009.
- ^ a b c d Khan, A. u R.; Othman, M.; Xia, F.; Khan, A. N. (2015-05-01). "Context-Aware Mobile Cloud Computing and Its Challenges". IEEE Cloud Computing. 2 (3): 42-49. doi:10.1109/MCC.2015.62. ISSN 2325-6095.
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- ^ a b c Sanaei, Zohreh; Abolfazli, Saeid; Gani, Abdullah; Buyya, Rajkumar (1 January 2013). "Heterogeneity in Mobile Cloud Computing: Taxonomy and Open Challenges" (PDF). IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials (99): 1-24. doi:10.1109/SURV.2013.050113.00090porn.
- ^ Fernando, Niroshinie; Seng W. Loke; Wenny Rahayu (2013). "Mobile cloud computing: A survey" (PDF). Future Generation Computer Systems. 29: 84-106. doi:10.1016/j.future.2012.05.023.
- ^ http://www.vodafone.com/content/dam/vodafone/about/what/white_papers/connecting_tothecloud.pdf
- ^ Khan, Atta ur Rehman; Othman, Mazliza; Khan, Abdul Nasir; Abid, Shahbaz Akhtar; Madani, Sajjad Ahmad (2015-04-23). "MobiByte: An Application Development Model for Mobile Cloud Computing". Journal of Grid Computing. 13 (4): 605-628. doi:10.1007/s10723-015-9335-x. ISSN 1570-7873.
- ^ Khan, Atta ur Rehman; Othman, Mazliza; Ali, Mazhar; Khan, Abdul Nasir; Madani, Sajjad Ahmad (2013-12-01). "Pirax: framework for application piracy control in mobile cloud environment". The Journal of Supercomputing. 68 (2): 753-776. doi:10.1007/s11227-013-1061-1. ISSN 0920-8542.
- ^ Peng Shu, Fangming Liu, Hai Jin, Min Chen, Feng Wen, Yupeng Qu, Bo Li, "eTime: Energy-Efficient Transmission between Cloud and Mobile Devices", in Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM (Mini-conference), Italy, April, 2013.
- ^ Fangming Liu, Peng Shu, "eTime: Energy-Efficient Mobile Cloud Computing for Rich-Media Applications", IEEE COMSOC MMTC E-Letter (IEEE Communications Society, Multimedia Communications Technical Committee), vol. 8, no. 1, January 2013.
- ^ a b Khan, Atta ur Rehman; Othman, Mazliza; Ali, Mazhar; Khan, Abdul Nasir; Madani, Sajjad Ahmad (2013-12-01). "Pirax: framework for application piracy control in mobile cloud environment". The Journal of Supercomputing. 68 (2): 753-776. doi:10.1007/s11227-013-1061-1. ISSN 0920-8542.
- ^ "MobCC Lab". University Malaya. Retrieved 2013.
- ^ "ICCLAB".
- ^ "Mobile and Cloud Computing Laboratory (Mobile & Cloud Lab)". University of Tartu.
- ^ "SmartLab Smartphone Programming Cloud Testbed". University of Cyprus.