Welcome to the Ada Programming tutorial at Study Guides. This is the first Ada tutorial covering the Ada 2005 and 2012 standards. If you are a beginner you will learn the latest standard -- if you are a seasoned Ada user you can see what's new.
But still there is always room for improvement -- do help us to expand Ada Programming. Even beginners will find areas to participate.
Ada is named after Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace.
Ada puts unique emphasis on, and provides strong support for, good software engineering practices that scale well to very large software systems (millions of lines of code, and very large development teams). The following language features are particularly relevant in this respect:
Consequences of these qualities are superior reliability, reusability and maintainability. For example, compared to programs written in C, programs written in Ada 83 contain "70% fewer internal fixes and 90% fewer bugs", and cost half as much to develop in the first place Ada shines even more in software maintenance, which often accounts for about 80% of the total cost of development. With support for object-oriented programming, Ada 95 may bring even more cost benefit, depending on how objects are used; although no serious study comparable to Zeigler's has been published.
In addition to its support for good software engineering practices, which are applicable to general-purpose programming, Ada has powerful specialised features supporting low-level programming for real-time, safety-critical and embedded systems. Such features include, among others, machine code insertions, address arithmetic, low-level access to memory, control over bitwise representation of data, bit manipulations, and a well-defined, statically provable concurrent computing model called the Ravenscar Profile.
Other features include restrictions (it is possible to restrict which language features are accepted in a program) and features that help review and certify the object code generated by the compiler.
Several vendors provide Ada compilers accompanied by minimal run-time kernels suitable for use in certified, life-critical applications. It is also possible to write Ada programs which require no run-time kernel at all.
It should come as no surprise that Ada is heavily used in the aerospace, defence, medical, railroad, and nuclear industries.
The Ada Reference Manual (RM) is the official language definition. If you have a problem and no one else can help, you should read the RM (albeit often a bit cryptic for non-language-lawyers). For this reason, all complete (not draft) pages in Ada Programming contain links into the appropriate pages in the RM.
This tutorial covers Ada Reference Manual -- ISO/IEC 8652:2012(E) Language and Standard Libraries, colloquially known as Ada 2012 or just Ada.
You can browse the complete Reference Manual at http://www.adaic.org/resources/add_content/standards/12rm/html/RM-TTL.html
There are two companion documents:
The Ada Information Clearinghouse also offers the older Ada 83, 95, and 2005 standards and companion documents.
The RM is a collective work under the control of Ada users. If you think you've found a problem in the RM, please report it to the Ada Conformity Assessment Authority. On this site, you can also see the list of "Ada Issues" raised by other people.
Unlike other programming languages, Ada compilers are officially tested, and only those which pass this test are accepted, for military and commercial work. This means that all Ada compilers behave (almost) the same, so you do not have to learn any dialects. But because the Ada standard allows the compiler writers to include some additions, you could learn a cool new feature only to find out that your favourite compiler does not support it...
Where to get a compiler, how to compile the source, all answered here:
These chapters look at the broader picture, introducing you to the main Ada features in a tutorial style.
The following articles are Ada adaptations from articles of the Computer programming book. The texts of these articles are language neutral but the examples are all Ada.
Within the following chapters we look at foundations of Ada. These chapters may be used for reference of a particular keyword, delimiter, operator and so forth.
This section is a reference of the Ada Standard Library, which is extensive and well structured. It has these four root packages:
Besides the Standard Library, compilers usually come with a built-in library. This chapter describes the GNAT library in particular.
This section is a reference of third-party Ada libraries which are not part of the compiler predefined environment but are freely available.
The following are collection pages. All collection pages are comprised of groups of the already available pages. You can use them for printing or to gain a quick overview. Please note that those pages are partly very long.
The Source from the Book is available for download and online browsing. The latter allows "drill down", meaning that you can follow the links right down to the package bodies in the Ada runtime library.
This Study Guide has been written by:
Manage research, learning and skills at IT1me. Create an account using LinkedIn to manage and organize your IT knowledge. IT1me works like a shopping cart for information -- helping you to save, discuss and share.